Tashkent (41°17′ N., 69° 16′ E) is the biggest city of Central Asia. It is situated on western slopes of the Tien Shan in the valley of the Chirchik river. The age of the City, which in the past had names Shash, Chach and Binket, is around 2200 years. Originally the city arose on the Salar Canal where today there is a railway station. Later the site of the ancient settlement moved to the area of the present Old City. In the 9th century a citadel was built there, and the city was protected with a wall. In the Middle Ages Tashkent became one of the most important centers of Muslim culture in Maverannahr. In the middle of the 16th century it was the capital of an independent province in the state of Sheybanids. In the early 17th–late18th centuries it was controlled by Kazakh Sultans and then for short time by Djungar khanate.
In the 18th century Tashkent became the center of trade with the Kokand, Bukhara and Khiva khanates. For few decades after Djungars had been defeated by Manjur army in 1756-1759, Tashkent fell under formal submission to China, but under the ruler Yunus-Khadja (1784-1801) regained its independence. In the beginning of the 19th century after intensive military activity, the Kokand khanate annexed Tashkent. After the Russian conquest in the 1860s Tashkent gained the status of administrative center of Turkistan General-Governorship, in 1918 the capital of Turkistan Republic and in 1930 the capital of the Uzbek Soviet Republic in the structure of the USSR. Since 1991 Tashkent has been the capital of the Independent Republic of Uzbekistan.