Khiva is a historical city in the lower reaches of the Amu-Darya River (41 ° 22 ‘N, 60 ° 21’ E), which in the Middle Ages became the successor of the ancient Khorezm city culture. The history of antic Khorezm, which was destroyed by the Arabian invasion, by that time, had already numbered nearly two thousand years. In the sacred book of Zoroastrians “Avesta”, it is referred as Hvarizam in the Behistun inscriptions of king Darius, Hvarazmish, in the writings of Arrian and in Strabo Horasmis. In the 6th-5th centuries B.C. Khorezm submitted to the Persians, and became one of the Achaemenids’ satrapies, but by the 4th century B.C. iy regained its independence. During the Asian campaign, Alexander the Great made a peace treaty with the Khorezm king Pharasman.
In the first century A.D. the Afrigid dynasty came to power in Khorezm, who ruled up to the end of the 10th century. In the 8th century these lands were annexed by the Arabs and became part of the Islamic world. In the 9th-13th centuries the state of Khorezm-shahs arose in Khorezm and was crushed by the Mongols in the 13th century. In the 14th-15th centuries Khorezm was a part of the Temurid state, and in the 16th century it was separated by the Chingizid khans. By the 17th century Amu-Darya changed its crease and Khiva became the center of the oasis and the capital of the khanate. In 1873 Russia established a protectorate over the Khanate of Khiva. The Khiva khan was dethroned in 1920 and the Khiva Republic was formed. It was annexed to the USSR and Khiva became an administrative part of Uzbekistan in 1924.